HomeContact UsDonate NowSearchPrint Page  
LAKENET LogoProtecting and restoring the health of lakes throughout the worldProtecting and restoring the health of lakes throughout the world
  LakesMapsNewsIssues & SolutionsProgramsLinksCalendarAbout UsJoin LakeNet
Lake Profile

Laguna de Bay

General Information

Description Laguna de Bay, also known as Laguna Lake, is the largest lake in the Philippines and the second largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. Located on the Philippine island of Luzon, the Laguna de Bay watershed cuts across five provinces, 66 municipalities and nine cities, including parts of Metropolitan Manila. More than 100 streams flow into the drainage area, which is divided into 24 sub-basins.
Country Philippines
Latitude 14° 0' 0" (14.0000)
Longitude 121° 5' 59" (121.1000)


 Laguna de Bay global index map (LakeNet)
 Laguna de Bay location map
 Lake Basin Management Initiative (LakeNet Explorer)
 USAID-supported Lake Basin Management and Biodiversity Conservation Technical Assistance 2003-2004 (LakeNet Explorer)
 Laguna de Bay Watershed Map (LLDA)

Physical Characteristics

Description Laguna de Bay has 21 major river tributaries, and a single outlet into Manila Bay through the Napindan Channel. Source: Oledan, T. (2001)
Volume 2.25 km3
Surface Area 900.00 km2
Depth Mean depth: 2.5 m
Maximum depth: 7.0 m
Residence Time 0.7 years
Origin Volcanic
Type Saline
Catchment Catchment size: 2,920.00 km2
Catchment/surface area ratio: 3:1


Economic Value Rice paddies, sugar cane fields, coconut plantations and other agricultural fields make up large portions of the catchment area.
Major Cities Manila

Watershed Management

Description Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) is a regional regulatory authority that has jurisdiction over water pollution control, flooding, rapid population expansion, and conflicts over jurisdiction and control of the lake. LLDA has implemented innovative policies that serve as important models for other watershed management organizations. Of the 24 sub-basins, 18 have independent River Councils with separate charters aimed at educating citizens and undertaking clean-up and other activities in their communities. These councils have created a Federation of River Councils and have established what they call an "environmental army" promoted by LLDA for clean-up around the lake.
Watershed Action Plan Implementation underway
Sub-basin Action Plan In development
Issues Laguna de Bay's watershed has experienced extensive urbanization and industrialization, especially on the western edge of the lake. Sewage flows freely through surface waters and in the Pasig and Marikina rivers. Aquaculture is another cause of extensive nutrient pollution. Deforestation is resulting in accelerated erosion rates. Water diversion for irrigation, although decreasing due to urbanization, is still serious.
Other Issues Point source pollution
Polluted runoff
Sediment contamination
Watershed habitat alteration
Specific Contaminants Industrial
POPs/PCPs/Endocrine Disrupters
Monitoring Programs In-Lake
Water Quality
Biological Resources and Habitats

Biodiversity Conservation

Description Declining fish productivity, diminishing phytoplankton community composition, and high heavy metal levels in lake biota are all evidence of significant pollution and significant stressors on Laguna de Bay's aquatic life.

Native fish species include Manila catfish, freshwater eel, goby, Indonesian bard, Common carp, Thai catfish and gowary.

Designations WWF Global 200
Species of Concern


Laguna Lake Development Authority

LakeNet Programs

World Lake Basin Management Initiative
Biodiversity Needs Assessment Survey
Lake99 Workshop: Managing the Great Lakes of the World, Implementing the Watershed Approach
USAID-funded Technical Assistance
LBMI Regional Experience Sharing & Review Workshop for Asia
Philippines: Establishment of Country-wide Lake Network


Challenges and opportunities in watershed management for Laguna de Bay (Philippines)  Case Study. Final. Lakes and Reservoirs- Research and Management. 9/1/2004.
Laguna de Bay  (PDF) Experience Brief. Final. Laguna Lake Development Authority. 2/27/2006.
Laguna de Bay Tables and Figures  Experience Brief. Draft. 1/13/2004.
Laguna de Bay: World Bank Comments on Experience Brief  Experience Brief. Draft. World Bank . 3/22/2004.
LakeNet News, Winter 2003-2004 (PDF)  Newsletter. Final. English. 12/20/2003.
Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, Special Issue edited by LakeNet, Volume 6:3  (PDF) Announcement. Blackwell Science-Asia. 7/31/2001.
Managing Lake Basins for Sustainable Use - Lake Basin Management Initiative Final Report (PDF)  Project Report. Final. English. 2/27/2006.
Memorandum of Understanding Between SEAMEO SEARCA and LakeNet  (PDF) Partnership Agreement. 11/25/2003.
Tagaytay Declaration on Philippine Lakes  (PDF) PlaNet. 11/28/2003.


An assessment of fishery resources of Laguna de Bay
Challenges and opportunities in watershed management for Laguna de Bay (Philippines)
European Commission Project: Laguna de Bay
ILEC Database
Laguna de Bay Institutional Strengthening & Community Participation Project
Laguna Lake Development Authority
Living Lakes Partner Profile: Laguna de Bay
Philippine freshwater zooplankton: an illustrated list (Oct. 2003)
The ecological status of Lake Laguna de Bay, Philippines
The EcoWatch Project: Information Disclosure
Water quality trends and trophic state assessments of Laguna de Bay, Philippines


11/25/2003 - Philippines holds first national lake congress
9/15/2003 - Laguna Lake Development Authority hosts Asian lake workshop
3/27/2003 - An environmental user fee system for food establishments is passed for Laguna de Bay
11/21/2002 - 5 firms shut down for polluting Laguna de Bay, including a slaughterhouse owned & operated by a municipal government
11/9/2001 - GEF offers grant for protection of Laguna de Bay Lake

Search again


Visit Art.com



Lakes | Maps | News | Issues & Solutions | Programs | Links | Calendar | About Us | Join Us
Home | Contact Us | Donate Now | Search | Legal Information
Copyright © 2003-2004 LakeNet. Site developed by RelianceNet. Email the webmaster. Site statistics by Google Analytics.